Learn About the 9 Branches of Dentistry

The majority of people refer to dentistry as a field of science that deals with teeth. However, also known as oral or dental medicine, dentistry is a branch of medicine that involves the prevention, diagnosis and dental treatment of conditions, disorders, and diseases of the oral cavity, the maxillofacial region and related structures.

Most individuals think that a general dentist can handle all teeth-related issues and wonder why it takes so many years to learn about just one part of the body, while a doctor takes the same period to learn about the whole body. However, dentistry is divided into numerous branches called specializations, each dealing with specific conditions. In this read, we are going to learn about the various branches of dentistry so buckle up!

1. Prosthodontics

Also known as restorative dentistry, this branch deals with repairing and restoring broken or mission teeth. Prosthodontics usually achieve this by using dentures, bridges or crowns. Dentists in this field specialize in treating mouth injuries, sleep or snoring disorders, jaw joint issues and post oral cancer reconstruction. They focus on restoring and maintaining oral function, health comfort, and appearance using replacements.

2. Periodontics

This is a form of dentistry that focuses on the gums. These dentists specialize in preventing and treating oral inflammation and gum-related conditions. Common treatments in periodontics include deep cleaning, a scaling and root planning procedure that gets rid of plaque buildup beneath the gums. Dentists in this field also repair dental implants and remove gum tissues that have sustained damage.

3. Cosmetic Dentistry

This is dental work aimed at improving the mouth’s appearance. This entails enhancing the shape, size, position, alignment and color of teeth. Common treatments include tooth-colored fillings and teeth whitening.

4. Implant Dentistry

This involves putting artificial teeth on the jawbone using implants. An implant is simply a screw-like metal component that acts as the root for a tooth. Implant dentistry involves multiple steps as it takes time for the jaw to heal.

5. Orthodontics

This is a procedure that’s meant to fix misaligned jaws or teeth. It involves fixing teeth gaps, underbites, overbites and other abnormalities to help restore the function and improve teeth’s longevity. Treatments often involve wires, retainers, braces and other corrective components. This type of dentistry helps improve a person’s physical appearance by repositioning and straightening the teeth.

6. Preventive or Community Dentistry

This branch deals with preventing conditions, promoting mental and physical efficiency and prolonging life via organized community efforts for environmental sanitation, controlling communicable infections, organizing nursing and medical services and educating people in personal hygiene to help in the diagnosis and preventive treatment of oral and dental issues.

7. Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology

This is a branch that utilizes x-rays to diagnose and treat dental conditions. Thanks to their advanced education, professionals in this field interpret magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), and other digital images to find underlying conditions that may not be easy to diagnose.

8. Pediatric Dentistry

Also referred to as pedodontics, pediatric dentistry is a field that deals with children’s dental care. The dentists specialize in providing dental sealants and fluoride treatment to young patients. They also educate the young ones about the importance of dental and oral health as well as how to break bad habits like thumb sucking.

9. Geriatric Dentistry

This branch focuses on older patients. These kinds of patients often have poorer oral health compared to younger patients because of tooth enamel wearing out over time, poor nutrition, and other health factors. As such, they require additional attention due to teeth sensitivities and drug interactions.

There are several other branches of dentistry, but these are the primary ones.

Dr. Mamaly Reshad, DDS, MSc, Prosthodontist, has over 20 years of experience in dentistry is the owner of ArtLab Dentistry in Brentwood.

What to Expect During the First 7 Days of Puppy Training

Virginia Beach dog trainers are well equipped to handle any dog at any age. It’s safe to say they have the equipment, the techniques, the knowledge, and the skills needed to complete the training safely and effectively. When your dog reaches a certain age that’s suitable for training, you should hire a professional dog trainer. Numerous studies show that dog training can help mold a dog’s behavior. More often than not, pet owners who didn’t pay for training ended up with dogs that exhibited unwanted dog behavior. Sadly, this can be hard and quite challenging to correct. As early as now, you should consider dog training.

There are a few things you need to know and prepare before you engage your pup in training. First, there is no rule that you can’t train your puppy at home. Of course, you can! But, make sure you do your research well. Dog training consists of several techniques and strategies. Some may work on your pup, while others don’t. We suggest that you experiment with these techniques and see what methods complement your pup’s learning capacity.

Bringing a new pup home can be exciting, but if you don’t plan and prepare for its arrival, your pup will have a hard time adjusting to the new place. Imagine being taken away from your siblings and your mother right after birth and being in a place with strangers. Your pup will feel scared and nervous with its new family. During the first week, make your home a welcoming and safe place for your puppy. Develop a routine and make its first week fun and loving one so that you can kick off with your training once your pup has fully adjusted.

We also suggest, if possible, visit your pup before the big pick up day. Ask the previous owner or breeder questions about your puppy, such as the best times to feed and what to feed your pup. You should also obtain a copy of its vaccinations and other documents.

Here’s What to Expect During the First Week of Pup Training

Puppy Proof Your Home

You can’t expect your pup to know the rules, so it’s your responsibility to keep essential possessions away from your dogs like sandals, floor plants, toys, and the like. To do that, you should puppy-proof your home. Anything that your pup can access, take them away and hide them in a safe place. Dogs love to chew. If your puppy is left to roam inside your home, there’s a huge chance it will bite and chew table and chair legs. You should think ahead and prepare your home by wrapping the legs with plastic or rolled boxes to keep them from getting scratched Morever, make sure you hide electric cords and wires.

Close all access to unsafe areas where your pup can go to, like ponds and pools. Check the fences if the spaces are big enough that your pup can squirm right through.

Set The Rules

To set the rules, everyone in the family has to be on board. Brief everyone in the household about the rules to avoid confusion. You have to be firm and consistent with your rules because if you cave in, your pup won’t be able to get the message. Setting the rules as early as now will help make future training easier. Some of the rules you need to address include when and where the pup should eat, where it should poop and pee and when to go to sleep. Toilet schedule is also important.

If you have kids in your homes, teach them how to hold the pup before it arrives. Let them know that ear pulling and poking are unacceptable. They can hug the puppy but not too tightly. For children younger than six years old, teach them to sit on the floor if they want to hold the pup so they won’t’ accidentally drop it.

Encourage everyone in the house to compliment and praise the pup if it does something right. This will encourage your puppy to continue behaving.

Prepare All The Essentials

Before taking your pup home, make sure you have all the essentials needed. If you don’t know what to prepare, we’ve come up with a list.

Leash and collar

Chew toys

Water bowl

Food bowl

Soft toy


Poo pick up bags


Safety gate

Pet tag

Grooming tools

Dog bed


There are still tons of things to do during the first week, but these should cover it. Don’t be overwhelmed with information because it will all come naturally to you. However, it’s best to be prepared. As long as you have the essentials and some background knowledge on dog training, you’re good to go and don’t worry; your pup will love you!

A Comprehensive Buying Guide for an Electric Oud

Are you looking to purchase an electric oud? What a wonderful time to live in! There are lots of choices and models to consider, and we wanted to make it as simple as possible for you. How so? — By preparing a comprehensive buying guide for an Electric Oud:

What Is the Oud (Musical Instrument)?

It is one of the most popular string instruments in Asia, Greece, Arabia, North Africa, and the Middle East. It is a fretless instrument comprising 10 to 13 strings and a bowl patterned body made of lightweight wood. Oud is very similar to modern lutes, and also to Western lutes and it’s been played for millennia. It is particularly common in art and folk music in Turkey, Arabia, and Syria.

The Origin of the Oud

The oud is said to be the earliest known string instrument. The origins of the musical instrument Oud may be traced back 3500 years to Persia, where it was known as Barbat (oud) and used to create music. The Arabs termed this instrument Al Oud, which means wood, specifically thin wood.

From Oud to Electric

Electric Ouds are a recent invention that comes in a variety of shapes and sizes made from attractive beech wood. Electric oud is a modernized version of the traditional oud that comes with a custom-made fiberglass strap. There isn’t much to these Ouds other than the fact that you can plug them in and go crazy with them.

This could be just what you’re searching for, as these have outstanding sound, playability, and electronics that you can customize. This instrument can be utilized in any form of music, from Jazz to Eastern folk to Rock. Because of their lightness, electric ouds are commonly used by musicians on their journeys.

A Comprehensive Buying Guide for an Electric Oud:

Here are some vital factors to consider when buying an electric oud:

Type of Oud – Construction & Sound:

Whether it’s a Turkish, Syrian, or Arabic electric oud, they all have 11 strings divided into five groups of two, with one string on its own. Some elements, however, differ depending on the type as shown:

• Turkish Electric Ouds – Because the equalizer and pickup are built into the instrument, it can be used as an electric or acoustic instrument. Expect a sound that is both unique and captivating, similar to traditional Turkish models.

• Arabic Electric Oud – The basin is slightly larger. They have a lower sound than the Turkish ones, so you’ll have to think about what tone you prefer before you buy.

• An Arabic oud with a 3/4-sized bowl – A one-of-a-kind electric oud with a 3/4-sized body. It provides stage comfort as well as great acoustic sound.

• Syrian Electric Ouds – They’re a little taller than the others, which makes it a little more difficult to play because you’d have to stretch your fingers. There isn’t much that sets them apart from Arabic ouds.

• Godin Oud (Oud Godin) -The ‘godin’ model is an electric oud pioneer and has a famed cutway and motorized pegs.

• Godin Multioud – Has a particular cutaway that makes playing in the higher octaves a breeze. The unusual shape also has a distinct beauty! It is the ultimate choice for excellent tuning and no maintenance!


This should go without saying if you’ve ever purchased an instrument (or any other semi-expensive thing). By coming up with a budget, you can select what areas you may need to compromise on – or not if you have a huge budget!

Style and Preference

It doesn’t matter if it is Turkish, Arabic, or Persian. The sound that it gives should be one of your favorites. The Arabic Oud has a similar sound and tuning to the Persian Oud, but after playing the Persian, Turkish, and Arabic Ouds, you’ll notice the differences. The sooner you understand the distinction, the better.

Know who you’re ordering from when it comes to luthiers.

What kind of Oud does a specific Luthier create? Look for oud forums and ask specific questions about the Luthier and their work/sound.

The Bottom Line

You’re fully prepared to go forth and wield this monarch of an instrument thanks to this detailed buying guide to buying an electric oud! It is indeed the best shopping guide for an electric oud, for both beginners and experts!

What are the Different Types of Oral Surgeries in Philadelphia?

How well do you care for your teeth and gums? Did you know that if you are diligent in your oral care routine and visit your dentist at least twice a year, your chances of developing oral health issues are significantly reduced? This also means your risk of undergoing oral surgeries is low. However, there are certain cases wherein your dentist will have no choice but to refer you to an oral surgeon to help restore or maintain your oral health. Trust us; if they could use non-invasive treatments, they would prefer those over surgery. Surgeries are expensive and come with risks, but if your condition can only be saved or improved through surgery, they will explain it to you in more detail.

Most people think that surgeries are bad. Well, they aren’t. You just have to choose a skilled and experienced oral surgeon. Let’s explore the different types of oral surgeries.

Wisdom Tooth Extraction

Wisdom teeth are your third molars. They are the last to erupt, usually between the ages seventeen and twenty-five, hence the name. There are people whose wisdom teeth erupt without problem, but those whose wisdom teeth surface somewhat abnormally. The latter is notoriously known as impacted wisdom teeth. This occurs when your mouth does not have enough space to accommodate your teeth.

As a result, they either partially erupt or stay underneath. Unfortunately, the impacted wisdom tooth may grow at an angle that pushes the tooth next to it, or it could grow backward or at a right angle to surrounding teeth.

Many problems are associated with impacted wisdom teeth, such as pain, food trapped in the tooth, gum disease, gum infection, tooth decay, jawbone and nearby teeth damage, cyst development around the wisdom tooth, and other orthodontic complications.

In such a case, your dentist will suggest that you undergo wisdom tooth removal. It’s one of the most widely performed surgeries in the dental industry. Wisdom teeth are determined after taking an X-ray image of your mouth.

Don’t worry; today’s wisdom tooth extractions are performed quickly and efficiently while keeping you comfortable for the entire time. The recovery periods are also shorter.

Dental Implant Surgery

Dental implant surgery is an elective type of surgery. It’s not considered an emergency procedure since other non-invasive tooth replacement treatments are available, like dentures and bridges. Nevertheless, most American popular prefer dental implants to other procedures because of their durability, strength, longevity, and resemblance to natural teeth in terms of function and aesthetic appeal.

Dental implants are artificial replacements for natural tooth roots. A dental implant consists of three parts – a biocompatible screw-shaped post, an abutment, and, lastly, a dental crown. You will only be given the signal to undergo dental implant surgery if you pass the eligibility criteria. Screening is essential because dental implant failure is highly likely if you push through with the surgery, even if you aren’t qualified.

In this procedure, your oral surgeon will slice through your gum tissues. The site will be anesthetized so you won’t feel any pain. After creating a small incision over your gums, a handheld tool is used to drill through your jawbone. Holes are made to receive the implants. Once the implants are embedded in place, your oral surgeon will stitch the gum tissues back to allow osseointegration to take place. This process involves the permanent fusion of the implants with your bone tissues to create a strong anchor for your artificial crowns. As mentioned, they replicate the physiology of natural tooth roots. Once osseointegration is complete, the abutments are attached. Gum tissues are stitched around the abutments. When your gums have healed, the artificial crowns are attached last. The entire procedure can last for months. Despite the long duration, rest assured that these implants are forever.

According to surveys, people love dental implants because they’ll stay there for a lifetime once they are in place. This is not the case for dentures and bridges that need to be replaced after ten to fifteen years. There are no adjustments and no replacements with implants, but you do need to care for them. Luckily, dental implants don’t need special care. You just have to practice proper oral hygiene and regularly see your dentist.

Some patients require bone grafting. This is also a surgical procedure usually done before dental implant surgery for those who don’t have sufficient jaw bone density.


Oral surgeries can be preventive and restorative, depending on your situation. Regardless, make sure you find a skilled oral surgeon to minimize risks and a high chance of a successful outcome.

Learn About Being a Makeup artist

Makeup plays an important part in a woman’s life. With permanent eyebrow will make you feel more attractive, younger, and even more empowered. The best way to use permanent makeup on yourself on a daily basis is to learn about being a makeup artist. In fact, you can save a lot of time and earn a good income by learning to become a makeup artist. If you have a passion to look beautiful and make other people beautiful too, you should definitely explore the options of learning to be a makeup artist. This article provides information on how to become a makeup artist and move forward in your career.

Being a professional makeup artist can be quite fun and rewarding at the same time. But it takes a lot of creativity and some hard work to become successful in your career. If you want to know how you should go forward from being obsessed with new eyeshadow makeup for yourself to applying makeup on others, keep on reading this article.

The first thing you should do when you want to become a professional makeup artist is to start learning and observing different types of makeup in other women. Find a mentor in your area who wouldn’t mind showing you how you should pursue a career as a full-time makeup artist. The mentor will most likely tell you to start applying makeup on yourself and practice the art of applying makeup. Once you are confident that you can do a good job applying makeup on yourself, you should start applying makeup to your friends and family members. The more you practice the art of applying makeup on yourself and other people, the more you become comfortable with the job. It also helps enhance your creativity and learn about the latest trends in the industry. You can even watch video tutorials online or go to a class in your area to perfect the art. There are many things to consider before becoming a professional makeup artist:

. You should know about the primers that are good for oily skin

. Know about the primers that are great for dry skin and sensitive skin

. What type of moisturizers to use in different weather conditions

. The difference between semi-eyebrow and permanent eyebrow makeups

. And more…

Formal education is recommended when you are serious about becoming a makeup artist. In fact, makeup artistry is a hands-on profession where you should seriously consider joining a makeup class in your area. The right school should cover important topics like applying professional cosmetics, applying makeup for television and film, and more. The right program should entail intensive training so that you will be comfortable going out and working after you receive the relevant certification. Don’t forget to talk to the instructors about the best way to reach out to television studios and modeling agencies in the area. That way you can let them know about your experience and find relevant work with these agencies.

It is important to market your skills and services as much as possible once you have received your certification. You can easily promote yourself as a professional makeup artist using the internet. Start by uploading photos to your social media pages. Make sure you upload creative photos about your various makeup looks on these pages. On the other hand, you can also upload short videos where you showcase your makeup skills and experience. Once you upload photos of your makeup looks, potential clients are more likely to take you seriously.

The aforementioned article provides information on how to become a makeup artist and move forward in your career.

The Best Ways to Borrow Money

Are you wondering what’s the best way to borrow money on credit? If so, you have come to the right place. Whether you have recently lost your job or need extra cash for whatever reason, borrowing money is a good solution for your predicament. In fact, there are a wide variety of lenders out there who are ready to meet your unique borrowing needs. For example, you can borrow money during an emergency from banks, credit unions, online lenders, and 401(k) plans. These institutions are some of the best sources to get credit when you need urgent cash for whatever reason. This article provides information on some of the best ways to borrow money.

The best option of borrowing money will largely depend on how much money you need to borrow and how fast you require it. On the other hand, your creditworthiness, credit history, and the ability to pledge collateral will also affect how much money you could borrow and how fast you will get the required amount of cash. Here are some of the best borrowing options that you should familiarize yourself with before making a choice.

Personal Loans

Personal loans are some of the most popular methods of borrowing money in an emergency. You can borrow money to cover travel expenses, home improvements, auto repairs, and more with a personal loan. But you can’t use a personal loan for higher education expenses and purchase a home. Banks, online lenders, and credit unions are some of the most common places where you can get a personal loan to meet your needs. The term of a personal loan will depend on the bank or credit union you plan to get the loan. For example, the credit term will usually range from two to seven years with an interest rate between 3% to 36%. The amount you can borrow will range from $250 to $100,000.

Personal Line Of Credit

A personal line of credit will allow the borrower to get up to a certain limit of funds on an as-needed basis. Person lines of credit are usually available from traditional banks and online lenders. The interest rate will be around 10% APR or higher. You should know your credit score and pre-qualify for this facility with different types of lenders to find the most competitive terms available on the market when applying for this type of loan.

Online Lenders

Online loans can be taken for different types of purposes including vacations, weddings, home improvements, auto repairs, and more. Digital lending platforms have become quite popular with borrowers over the past few years. These institutions use advanced software to cut out the unnecessary hassle involved in the traditional loan application process. They offer quick and effective service for people who need fast cash for whatever reason. The best thing about an online loan is the number of options available on the market. They have every type of loan to suit all your needs. You can easily customize these types of loans to suit your current financial situation. The application process is quick and easy. You can compare different options before getting the lowest interest rate for your loan.

401(k) Loan

If you have a 401(k) plan, you can use it to access quick cash for whatever reason. You will be borrowing against the balance of your 401(k) plan. But you have to pay back the loan within five years or the IRS will treat it as a distribution, and you may have to pay a tax penalty equal to 10% of the amount you borrowed.

The aforementioned article provides information on some of the best ways to borrow money on credit.

Ways to Maintain your Construction Equipment During Winter

With winter in full swing and the frozen ground conditions in the area, it’s important to winterize your heavy construction machinery to keep it from freezing. While the occasional cold weather damage to construction equipment cannot be helped, there are many ways to maintain your construction equipment during the winter season. This article provides information on some of the most effective ways to maintain your construction equipment during the winter months.

The most important thing is to prevent contamination when fueling your construction equipment. Make sure that water and contaminants don’t enter the fuel tank and cause various problems with the machinery. Engine contamination is quite common in the construction industry during the colder months. Taking appropriate steps to prevent such contamination is important to safeguard the equipment and prolong its lifespan.

When the temperatures in the area drop below freezing, battery wires and hoses can easily freeze and become stressed due to the frigid temperatures. Frozen batteries will not function optimally and may explode if you try to charge them or jump-start your equipment with it. On the other hand, battery wires and hoses become brittle in the cold weather. Make sure you allow the equipment to warm up before operating to prevent permanent damage to them.

Tire damage is another common problem with construction equipment in the cold winter months. Don’t allow the tires to freeze to the ground since it may result in drive train damage and tears. You can park the equipment on a raised plank to prevent this from happening. Storing the equipment on raised surfaces is the best way to prevent tire damage during the cold winter months.

Using seasonally appropriate fluids, oils, and greases is important to protect your construction equipment during the cold winter months. Using a low-temperature oil helps improve engine function since the oil doesn’t get thick and become difficult to move with cold temperature. On the other hand, extremely cold weather can freeze the brakes in your construction machinery and prevent them from releasing properly. It puts the lives of workers at the construction site in danger. That is why you need to change the oils, fluids, and greases in all construction equipment during the winter months. It will help protect the equipment as well as safeguard the lives of construction workers by preventing unnecessary accidents.

If your construction site is located in an extremely cold region, the best thing is to idle your machinery overnight so that you don’t have to start it the next morning. If the temperatures in your area reach -40 or -50° F, you cannot spend all day warming a machine up just to get it started. In fact, construction machinery is never shut off in some colder regions. They are actually left to properly idle the whole night since the cold temperatures can make them too difficult to start the next shift.

Frost, ice, and frozen ground will make digging more difficult during the winter season. It will put more strain on your construction machinery and equipment. Make sure you keep a close eye on the machinery to see that its components are working properly. The equipment will use more energy during such times since they have to work harder than normal. The most important thing is to prevent any damage to the machinery because it can cost you a lot in repairs and replacements later on. These are some of the most important factors to consider when winterizing your construction equipment during the cold winter season.

Winterizing construction equipment is important to keep them from freezing. The aforementioned article provides information on some of the most effective ways to maintain your construction equipment during the winter months.

Exhibition, The Pros and Cons of Trade Shows

Trade show Design exhibit – is it a good idea? Is it worth the investment? Can your business truly benefit from it as what other business owners are saying? It looks like trade show exhibits really do work based on the unending ads about them. Every month, dozens of exhibits are being held. Why do you think so? The trade show business is indeed helpful for both small and large-scaled businesses because it opens up doors of opportunities to grow your network and make your brand known. However, not a lot of people are convinced that the time, money and effort they invest in these shows will give them sufficient ROI. Therefore, before you make a commitment, it’s only logical that you learn the pros and cons of trade show exhibits so you can make an informed decision if your business can truly benefit from it.

The following are pros and cons in joining trade show exhibits:

The Pros

People Will Notice Your Brand

If you’re a business owner you know that marketing your brand is not a walk in the park. In fact, it may even seem like you’re scaling an impossibly high mountain just to get people to notice you given that there are hundreds up to thousands of competitors offering the same products as you do. The good thing about exhibits is that it becomes a venue where people interested in what you have to offer gather. If you design your booth in a way that will capture their attention, it will pique your potential leads’ interest and the next thing you know is they will be flocking towards your booth asking you questions about your brand. So yes, being part of a trade show exhibit is one way of letting people know you exist and that’s a good start.

Increase Your Reach

Out of sight, out of mind. If you’re not visible both online and offline people will forget about you and you will drown in a sea of other brands. To keep afloat, make sure you make your presence known and one way of doing that offline is by displaying your brand in a form of a trade show booth.

It’s A Learning Experience

Although your initial intention is to market your brand, joining a trade show booth is actually a learning experience. Imagine a venue packed with market leaders, competitors and business owners and imagine being in that place. You don’t have to wonder what they’re going to be talking about, right? Obviously they’ll discuss relevant topics about the industry. You’ll not only gain new alliances but you’ll also gain more knowledge about the industry.

The Cons

It’s An Added Expenses

It doesn’t take a genius to know that being a part of a trade show is an expense by its own. You’ll have to spend money on registration, pay for the booth and then you’ll have to factor in the cost for the expenses, the labor work so on and so forth.